PNH Treatment: A New Era - Advances in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

Newer drugs for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) are revolutionizing the field, improving quality of life and reducing fatigue.1

PNH, a rare condition, is characterized by chronic destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis), resulting in anemia and fatigue, which can significantly affect patients’ quality of life. The chronic nature of the disease, with different treatment requirements, also contributes negatively to quality of life. Increased risk of complications, including breakthrou

Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer: We Need to Discuss Menopausal Symptoms - Early Breast Cancer

In a recent study, patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer reported feeling unprepared for menopausal symptoms experienced as part of therapy, highlighting an unmet need for better communication with providers.1

Many patients with breast cancer experience symptoms of menopause, regardless of their age or menopausal status, due to estrogen deficiency.2 These symptoms can cause distress and disruption in daily life, particularly during chemotherapy.1,3 Clinic visits before chemotherapy tr

MDM2 Inhibition Marches on Across Cancer Settings

Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) inhibitors are moving to late-stage clinical trials, representing an exciting opportunity to target p53 in both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies.

“Tumor p53 (TP53), the gene that encodes p53, [a protein deemed] ‘the guardian of the genome,’ has been consider[ed] undruggable for a long time,” said Ecaterina E. Dumbrava, MD, an assistant professor in the Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas M

How NMOSD and MS are Impacted by COVID-19 Infection and Vaccination - Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccination were associated with a mild increase in risk of relapse among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). That was the conclusion—with some caveats—of a team of researchers from the Czech Republic, who recently tapped a nationwide database to conduct a retrospective, observational cohort study.1

“We aimed to evaluate the short-term risks of clinical relapse in the 90-day period after the first dose [of] CO

In PNH, What Drives Progression to Secondary Myeloid Neoplasms? - Advances in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

Results from a large retrospective study suggest that the malignant evolution of aplastic anemia (AA) and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PHN) to secondary myeloid neoplasms (sMN) may be the consequence of a relentless autoimmune attack that produces a maladaptive response to immunosuppression.1

In the past few decades, there has been a dramatic improvement in the survival outcomes of patients with AA treated with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) who do not qualify or lack a suitable donor

PNH Clone Characteristics: A Variety Show - Advances in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

A study recently published in Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry demonstrated that the same abnormality is not always present across all routinely tested cell lines among patients who have the rare blood disorder paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) with multiple PNH clones.1

“There is no simple explanation for this but [it] is likely due to a combination of complex molecular, genetic and biochemical dysfunction in different blood cell types,” Stephen J. Richards, PhD, FRCPath, Division o

Black Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Have Higher Rates of Uncontrolled Hypertension - Recent Advances in Multiple Sclerosis

Uncontrolled hypertension is a significant problem for patients for multiple sclerosis (MS) and there are prominent racial disparities in its prevalence, with Black Americans being more affected than White Americans.1

MS is a chronic, degenerative disease that affects the nervous system. It has been traditionally thought to affect primarily White Americans of European descent, but recent research suggests that the risk of MS among Black Americans is increasing. Black Americans with MS also tend

People with Multiple Sclerosis are Ready to Ditch COVID-19—But Keep Telemedicine - Recent Advances in Multiple Sclerosis

After using it during the COVID-19 pandemic, people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) expressed a preference for using telemedicine for their MS care indicating its feasibility for this patient population.1

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease that affects young adults and is associated with high utilization of healthcare services.2 Access to appropriate care can be difficult for PwMS due to long travel times and the variety of neurological deficits they may experience. Te

In Patients with Breast Cancer, How Did COVID-19 Affect Access to Care? - Early Breast Cancer

Following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a reduction in the number of office visits for patients receiving primary treatment for early-stage hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, even after vaccines were available.1

Patients with early-stage HR+ breast cancer often experience physical and psychological side effects while undergoing primary treatment. Close monitoring and frequent follow-up are important for maintaining treatment adherence, preventing cancer recurrence, a

Children with ALL Still Have a High Mortality Rate, Despite Survival Improvements - Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Despite therapeutic advances, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has evolved to a similar extent as that of the general population in Sweden over the last 3 decades.1

ALL is a common childhood cancer that has seen a significantly improved survival rate over the past 50 years in high-income countries, such as Sweden. This was due to various factors, including risk stratification, treatment intensity adaptations, and the treatment

Low/Intermediate FLIPI and Not Transformed Follicular Lymphoma Has a Favorable Outcome - Update: B-Cell and Follicular Lymphoma

While the outcome for patients with follicular lymphoma (LF) who relapse within 24 months after first-line treatment (POD24) is generally poor, patients with low/intermediate Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) and not transformed at first relapse may do better than other cases.1

FL is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects adults, usually around the age of 60. It is the second most common type of lymphoma and in most patients it is characterized by the overexpressio

Acute Pyelonephritis: Shedding Light on the Risk Factors - Urologic Health

A new large patient database analysis identified the most important risk factors for the development of acute pyelonephritis (APN), which can be used to aid decisions regarding empiric antibiotic initiation for patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).1

While urinary tract infections (UTI) are common,2 the initial diagnosis can be challenging due to symptom overlap with overactive bladder (OAB). Additionally, culture results to confirm an infection can take 2-3 days.3 This i

Childhood ALL Survivors Have a Better Quality of Life Compared to the General Population - Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

A case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors from France and Belgium showed higher quality of life (QoL) compared to the general population in domains of social and emotional functioning.1

Treatment for ALL, the most common childhood cancer, using risk-directed therapy has resulted in improved survival rates of around 90%.2 However, the diagnosis and treatment of ALL can have significant impacts on the QoL of survivors and their families.3 Previous studies on t

Rethinking Lung Cancer Screening in non-Heavy Smokers? - NSCLC: Contemporary Approaches

A recently published study found that former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) who quit 15 or more years ago, and current non-heavy smokers (<20 pack-years), had at least a 10-fold increase in the risk of lung cancer compared to people who had never smoked.1

The 2021 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended annual screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for smokers at a high risk of developing lung cancer. This group includes smokers between 50 and 80 years old, heavy smokers who

Home Oxygen Therapy May Not Benefit Patients With COPD and Moderate Hypoxemia - Focus on COPD

In patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia, long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), delivered for at least 15 to 18 hours per day or during sleep time (nocturnal oxygen therapy), has been found to improve survival.1 Technological developments increased access to home oxygen therapy and, together with recommendation from influential societies, resulted in its widespread use in patients with less severe hypoxemia (ie, moderate hypoxemia).2,3 Yet, recent randomized trials have failed to find a survival be

MS and Race: Does Prevalence Differ Between Groups? - Advances in Multiple Sclerosis

The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Southern California is comparable for Black and White people, according to a report recently published in Neurology. While MS prevalence is lower in Asian and Hispanic individuals, the study indicated, there is some evidence to suggest that MS might be an emerging disease among the latter group.1

“Taken together with previous studies,” the authors commented in their report, “these findings indicate that the burden of MS in the US Black community has

Increased Molecular Understanding Informs Mantle Cell Treatment Choices

The treatment paradigm for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is shifting as novel agents are incorporated into prior standard regimens and as next-generation sequencing becomes more readily used, allowing us to identify—well beyond clinical prognostic models—distinct molecular features predictive of poor outcome with conventional approaches, according to Andre H. Goy, MD. Goy is physician in chief at Hackensack Meridian Health Oncology Care Transformation Service, chairman and chief physician officer a

Science journeys: How two women found their passion

I am fascinated by people’s stories and what drives them to their careers in science. Recently, I had the opportunity to talk to two women scientists, one from Iran and another from Brazil, about how they first became interested in science, how their careers have progressed and their plans for the future. Their answers have been edited.

Nahal Hoghooghi, a soil scientist and hydrologist from Iran, is a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Georgia. She uses geospatial modeling to

Using bacteria to clean the environment

In recent years, concerns have heightened about increasing amounts of drugs in the environment, particularly in water. While the impact of this environmental pollution is not well understood, some evidence indicates that these drugs may be entering the food chain. Researchers believe that most of the drugs that end up in fresh water first accumulate at wastewater treatment facilities. Therefore, there is a need to eliminate the drugs at these facilities.

Ashley Robinson, a senior biochemistry m
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