In NMOSD, Exploring the Impact of Vitamin D Deficiency - NMOSD: Current Perspectives

Vitamin D deficiency significantly correlates with increased risk of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), revealed a study by Shuangxi Liu and colleagues published on the Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, potentially reshaping our understanding of NMOSD management and prevention.1

Vitamin D has recently emerged as a key player in immune regulation, with a potential influence on various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid diseas

Genetic Subgroups of Follicular Lymphoma Can Be Distinguished by Machine Learning - Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Update

In an innovative study to unravel the genetic underpinnings and progression potential of follicular lymphoma (FL), researchers leveraged a machine learning approach to reveal 2 distinct genetic subgroups of FL: one that genetically resembled diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), termed DLBCL-like FL (dFL), and another termed constrained FL (cFL), which was enriched for mutations in the CREBBP gene and showed reduced aberrant somatic hypermutation.1

FL, a type of indolent cancer, contributes to

ADHD Boosts Concussion Risk in Student Athletes, But Stimulant Meds May Aid Recovery - ADHD Update

College athletes and military cadets with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face greater vulnerability to concussions, but those using stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, exhibit faster symptom abatement post-injury versus non-medicated peers, a recent study reports.1

As a heterogeneous traumatic brain injury, concussion management poses numerous challenges. Certain populations, including individuals with pre-existing conditions like ADHD, demonstrate an increased risk

Most Patients with Macular Disease Do Not Have Improved Outcomes with Eccentric Viewing Training - Eye on Wet AMD

Eccentric viewing training failed to systematically enhance visual ability, reading performance, or fixation stability compared to standard rehabilitation alone or supervised reading practice in a randomized trial of patients with age-related macular disease (AMD).1

AMD causes central vision loss due to damage to the macula region of the retina. This requires patients to use peripheral, non-central areas of retina for visual tasks in a process known as eccentric viewing. The retinal area habitu

AMD Development in Patients with AIDS: NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation May Play a Role - Peer to Peer: Spotlight on AMD

Elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers implicated in inflammasome activation pathways associate specifically with intermediate AMD risk but not cataract risk in people with AIDS, suggesting systemic immune dysfunction may play a role in macrophage-mediated AMD development rather than generalized aging processes in this population.1

While modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV into a manageable chronic condition, people living with HIV still contend with higher risks of age-

Tailoring Optic Neuritis Evaluation Using Risk Profiles - NMOSD: Current Perspectives

A new report calls for high clinical suspicion of optic neuritis in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD).

The significant relative risk of optic neuritis seen in these—and other inflammatory conditions— should escalate suspicion and guide evaluation for appropriate treatment when patients with these diagnoses present with new visual symptoms, according to James B. Davis, MBA, a research fellow at

Psoriasis is Frequently Underdiagnosed in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis - Spondyloarthritis Peer-to-Peer

Results from a cross-sectional survey of a Dutch axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) cohort, recently published in Arthritis Research & Therapy by Rondags and colleagues, suggest that psoriasis is likely underdiagnosed, especially milder cases, when relying solely on previous doctor-made diagnoses.1

Using a self-reported screening tool with photos of psoriasis lesions, 13% of axSpA patients indicated having psoriasis symptoms currently or in the past. However, only about half of those patients had

Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Are Platelets Partly to Blame? - RSV in Adults

Platelets did not undergo activation or degranulation upon respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) exposure in vitro, suggesting they may not directly participate in the immune pathology underlying severe RSV infections, according to the results of a study recently published in the open-access journal Access Microbiology.1

RSV is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections. A subset of patients develop severe lower respiratory tract infections requiring hospitalization and supplemental oxygen

Early Onset of Spondyloarthritis Symptoms Challenges Diagnostic Delay - Spondyloarthritis Peer-to-Peer

A recent cross-sectional study of over 4000 patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) reveals that those with early onset of extra-musculoskeletal manifestations (EMMs), such as psoriasis, face shorter diagnostic delays compared to onset with common musculoskeletal symptoms (MMs) such as back pain.1

These findings, which were published in August 2023 in the journal RMD Open by Puche-Larrubia and colleagues, challenge the perception that most SpA begins with musculoskeletal manifestations and sugges

In Febrile Infants, SARS-CoV-2 Dramatically Lowers Concurrent IBI Risk - Pediatric Meningitis

Young infants with fever and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection had a negligible rate of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs) including bacteremia and meningitis, according to a study by Brett Burstein, MD CM, PhD, MPH, and colleagues, published in JAMA Network Open.1

Febrile infants aged 8 to 60 days are routinely evaluated for serious bacterial infections including urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, and meningitis per American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines.2 However, the presence

Asymmetric Wet and Dry AMD: How Does Progression Compare? - Eye on Wet AMD

A study by Styliani Blazaki, and colleagues, published in the Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, reveals significant differences in the progression of macular atrophy between treated eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and eyes with dry AMD (dAMD).1

AMD, the leading cause of blindness in developed countries, is classified into early, intermediate, and advanced forms. Advanced forms include choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and geographic atr

Reassessing Cardiac Amyloidosis: Sex Disparities in Diagnostic Thresholds - Transthyretin Amyloidosis (ATTR-CM) in Focus

A study published in the European Journal of Heart Failure suggests that traditional diagnostic standards for cardiac amyloidosis (CA) may overlook a significant number of women, highlighting a crucial need for revised, gender-specific criteria.1

CA is characterized by an increase in cardiac wall thickness resulting from amyloid fibril accumulation. Traditionally, amyloid transthyretin (ATTR)-CA was perceived as being a rare disease more prevalent and severe in men compared to women. However, r

Cataract Surgery and nAMD: A Deeper Dive Into Outcomes and Treatment Effects - Wet AMD: Current Perspectives

A recently published study shows that cataract surgery offers a beacon of hope for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment, improving both distance and near vision without exacerbating the underlying condition.1

Age-related cataracts, the leading cause of blindness globally, often co-exist with AMD, the predominant cause of severe visual impairment in developed countries. Cataract surgeries are routinely condu

MTAP Deletion: A Promising Biomarker for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma - Metastatic Urothelial Cancer Peer-to-Peer

A retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma found that deletion of the enzyme S-Methyl-5’-thioadeno-sine phosphatase (MTAP) is a potential biomarker of response to pemetrexed and patients with MTAP-deletion (MTAP-del) have a shorter time to progression to metastatic disease and inferior response to chemotherapy.1

Bladder cancer is a deadly disease with a low 5-year survival in the setting of distant metastasis. Despite the availability of several treatments, there

Early-Onset Inclusion Body Myositis: Youth May Not Be Protective - Dermatomyositis and Other Inflammatory Myopathies

A recent study reveals that early-onset inclusion body myositis (IBM) presents as a severe inflammatory muscle condition in younger individuals, challenging traditional age-centric diagnostic criteria and revealing significant mitochondrial DNA mutations that suggest accelerated muscle aging.1

IBM, an inflammatory myopathy, often afflicts those in their middle age or later years, presenting symptoms like muscle weakening in the quadriceps and finger flexors, as well as dysphagia. Diagnosing IBM

Strengthening the HIV Care Continuum by Improving Pediatric to Adult Healthcare Transitions - HIV Management Peer-to-Peer

A recently published study found that more work is needed to ensure higher rates of successful healthcare transitions (HCTs) from pediatric to adult HIV care and suggests practical ways to address shortcomings.1

The HCT from pediatric to adult HIV care can result in disruptions in care engagement and viral suppression. Ideally, HCT preparation involves a multidisciplinary approach that starts years before the actual transfer and is tailored to the specific needs of youth living with HIV (YLH).2

Beyond 6 Weeks: A New Look at Prolonged Postpartum Challenges - Postpartum Depression and Mental Health

Defying traditional expectations of recovery, a new study reveals that many women face persistent physical and mental health challenges throughout their first year of motherhood, underlining the urgent need for an integrated approach to perinatal care beyond the conventional 6-week mark.1

The transition to motherhood, encompassing pregnancy, birth, and postpartum, is often presumed to involve a complete physical recovery within 6 weeks after delivery. However, emerging evidence suggests that bo

Rheumatoid Arthritis and Postpartum Depression: An Underexplored Intersection - Postpartum Depression and Mental Health

Women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an elevated risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders (PPD), particularly if they have no pre-existing psychiatric history, marking an urgent need for preventive measures and further research into this underexplored connection.1

PPD, which affect 11% to 15% of women post-childbirth, represent significant complications with potential long-term implications for the mother, child, and broader family unit.2,3 Among these disorders, postpartum depression is

A Hospital Readmission That’s Linked to Ischemic Placental Disease - Postpartum Depression Peer-to-Peer

Women with ischemic placental disease (IPD) during pregnancy are more than twice as likely to be readmitted for postpartum depression (PPD) within a year of delivery, with risks intensifying for those with multiple forms of IPD, according to a new study from a team of 5 New Jersey-based investigators.1

PPD, with an estimated global prevalence of 6% to over 20%, presents significant health risks, including a heightened vulnerability to suicide during the peripartum period.2,3 These data, however

A Clearer Picture: The Interplay of Dyslipidemia and Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Eye on Wet AMD

By uncovering a significant link between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and systemic dyslipidemia, a new systematic review and meta-analysis paves the way for the development of more-targeted, innovative therapeutic strategies.1

AMD, a leading cause of visual impairment in older adults, has long been studied for its intricate connections to various systemic factors.2 One such proposed link is with systemic dyslipidemia; however, the reported association between AMD and dyslipidemia has

Axial Damage in PsA and SpA: Insights from a Radiographic Cohort Study - Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

A recent study unveiled a low incidence of radiographic axial damage in patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA), but demonstrated differences between these groups.1

PsA and SpA share similar genetic backgrounds, pathological mechanism, and clinical features. The conditions can result in axial skeletal damage, which significantly impacts patients' quality of life.2,3 There is ongoing debate about whether these conditions belong to the same entity or are diff

Rethinking Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines for Older Adults - Cervical Cancer in Focus

A recently published study shows a significant burden of advanced cervical cancer in older patients (aged ≥65 years), questioning the guidelines for discontinuing screening in this population.1

Cervical cancer screening, using the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) tests, has effectively reduced the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer since implementation.2,3 This screening can detect pre-malignant lesions and early stage (stage I) disease.4,5 However, many patients

In Allergic Asthma, Type 2 Inflammation May Reduce COVID-19 Severity - Severe Asthma Peer-to-Peer

According to a new study, patients with allergic asthma have some protection against COVID-19, as type 2 inflammation can reduce the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the airway epithelium.1

During the current pandemic, higher airway viral loads and deficient antiviral interferon responses have been linked to more severe disease,2,3 but the mechanisms of innate protection against SARS-CoV-2 remain unclear.1 Interestingly, patients with respiratory al

Infections in Patients with Decompensated Heart Failure are Common—and Dire - Heart Failure Peer-to Peer

A recently published study found that a quarter of patients hospitalized with primary heart failure (HF) are diagnosed with an infectious disease, and such a diagnosis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.1

HF affects over 800,000 patients annually.2 Infectious diseases can trigger HF decompensation, which can be challenging to diagnose due to the absence of typical signs and symptoms and confounding factors related to the HF syndrome. Delays in initiating appropriate antimicrob
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